Sequences and series: installation instructions

If you want to install and configure your browser to read these XHTML+MathML pages click the correct link for your set-up. After doing so, your browser will then be able to view MathML correctly on a growing number of sites world-wide.

Quick links

This page was written in May 2006 and updated in January 2009 in a very cursorary way for browsers available at those dates. If you are aware of any changes since then that affect these instructions please let me know.

1 Microsoft Windows and Firefox

Installation of the current version Firefox (a version of mozilla) in MS-Windows should be straightforward. Note that you will also need certain fonts that are NOT installed by default.

STEP 1. First download and install Firefox from this link (if you haven't done so already). Any version is OK for these web pages.

STEP 2. You will need to install extra fonts as well. These are available via the Mozilla MathML fonts page. Make sure you know which version of Firefox you have.

2 Microsoft Windows and Internet Explorer

I'll assume that you are running a recent version of MS-windows (Windows XP or Windows 2000 or later) and have a recent version of Internet Explorer (6.0 or later). On its own this should enable you to see a limited version of the pages. However to view the MathML correctly you need a browser plug-in, MathPlayer (version 2.0 or later).

Install MathPlayer from Design Science's web site at mathplayer.

Please note the following:

3 Other operating systems and Firefox

Most recent mozilla-based browsers (such as Mozilla itself, Epiphany and of course Firefox) are able view MathML. If you use one of these, just identify which version of mozilla your browser is based on and follow the instructions to install fonts for your operating system and try it. I use Linux and Epiphany and these work fine.

If you have some other browser, such as Safari, Konqueror, it is probably best at the moment to install Firefox. and the fonts.

There may be problems installing and using the fonts on your system. I don't really understand these issues and can't offer help.

4 Amaya

The W3C's web browser, Amaya, should work. (MS-Windows, Linux, MacOS X.) I have little experience with this, so just click the link and follow the instructions. It's well-worth trying if you are having problems with other browsers.

5 For web gurus

I follow web standards and recommendations at the WWW consortium My web servers use Content Negotiation to determine the best version of my pages for your browser.

For most pages here, in addition to the text/html version of the page, my server provides an application/xhtml+xml version of the page. The application/xhtml+xml version is the one that contains the MathML. If your browser does not specify that it prefers application/xhtml+xml you will get the plain text/html without mathematics.

However, if you have MSIE+MathPlayer you should be able to see my pages. MSIE in particular does not specify application/xhtml+xml and in this particular case, a script on my pages identifies the browser and redirects it to the correct page. Something similar may be required for other web agents. If you are one of those people that like to disguise your browser's identity that's fine, but it means this script will not necessarily work and provide full mathematical content.

This web page is available in xhtml, html and pdf. It is copyright and is one of Richard Kaye's Sequences and Series Web Pages. It may be copied under the terms of the Gnu Free Documentation Licence ( There is no warranty. Web page design and creation are by GLOSS.